simple attribute - atomic values, which cannot be divided further. For example, student's phone number, course ID etc.
Composite attribute - made of more than one simple attributes. For example, a student's complete name may have first_name and last_name.
Derived attribute - their values are derived from other attributes present in the database. For example, age can be derived from a person's birthday.
Single-value attribute - attributes that contain single value. For example - course ID.
Multi-value attribute - attributes that contain more single value. For example - a person's phone number. You may have more than one phone number, right?
A data can belongs to more than one attributes which is mentioned above can. For example, phone number is a simple attribute. It can also be multi-value attribute. In this case, we say that it is a simple multi-valued attribute.
One-to-one: One entity from entity set A can be associated with at most one entity of entity set B
For example, you are in one of the class in your school.
One-to-many − One entity from entity set A can be associated with more than one entities of entity set B however an entity from entity set B, can be associated with at most one entity.
For example, a teacher teaches more than one class.
Many-to-one − More than one entities from entity set A can be associated with at most one entity of entity set B, however an entity from entity set B can be associated with more than one entity from entity set A. For example, all the teacher who teach the same subject are in the same office.
Many-to-many − One entity from A can be associated with more than one entity from B. For example, every student can take more than one course and the course can be taken by many students.
Entity : A thing in the real world with an independent existence. For example, students in your school.
This picture can help you draw the type of each attributes and relationship.
My English is really poor. If there is any mistake about the grammar, please accept my apology.